Manuscript Preparation - IEEE Robotics and Automation Society

Manuscript Preparation

Page Length - Regular papers are limited to 12 Transactions pages, short papers to 6 Transactions pages, communication items to 3 Transactions pages, and survey papers to 14 Transactions pages. These page limits include everything needed for publication, e.g., figures and tables. For regular and survey papers only, authors are requested to include also current biographies (no more than 100 words) and recent photographs. For all categories, mandatory page charges are imposed on extra pages (see Page Charges below). The maximum acceptable length (with extra page charges) of the submitted PDF file in Transactions format is: 20 Transactions pages for regular papers, 8 Transactions pages for short papers, 4 Transactions pages for communication items, and 20 Transactions pages for survey papers. A mandatory page charge is imposed on all regular papers whose length exceeds 12 TRANSACTIONS pages (and up to 20 pages), including illustrations and authors' biographies. This charge is $175 per page for each page over the first twelve based on the final typeset length, and is a prerequisite for publication. The same policy applies to short papers exceeding 6 TRANSACTIONS pages (and up to 8 pages), to communication items exceeding 3 TRANSACTIONS pages (and up to 4 pages), and to survey papers exceeding 14 TRANSACTIONS pages (and up to 20 pages).

Paper Format - All manuscripts should be submitted in the double column format of the Transactions using an IEEE style file. Instructions and templates (LaTeX or Word) are downloadable from the IEEE "Article Preparation and Submission" section of the IEEE Author Digital Toolbox, together with other useful tools for authors. If you use LaTeX for preparing a short paper or a communication item, download the style files ( and then typeset your manuscript in the "technote paper" format, i.e., put the command "\documentclass[9pt,technote]{IEEEtran}" in your LaTeX file.

When using the IEEE style format, the first (title) page will contain the paper title and each author's name, affiliation, and full address (mailing address, email address, and fax number), with the corresponding author clearly indicated, the abstract (no more than 200 words for regular or survey papers, and 50 words for short papers or communications items), the keywords (index terms), and the beginning of the main text of the paper. Do not use a cover page (the appearance should be just as published articles in the Transactions). Also, T-RO does not use double blind review and thus the authors' names should be indicated in the PDF of the paper. The type of submission (regular paper, short paper, communication item, or survey paper) may be indicated in the page header. Note that the PDF will be stamped by the system upon submission, so it is better not to interfere with this by overloading footer and header.

To enhance the appearance of your article on IEEEXplore®, a graphical abstract can be displayed along with traditional text. The graphical abstract should provide a clear, visual summary of your article’s findings by means of an image, animation, video, or audio clip. Please note that the graphical abstract is considered a part of the technical content of the article, and must be submitted together with your article for peer review. For more information about graphical abstracts and their specifications, please visit

Figures, Tables, and References - All figures and tables must be numbered and cited in the text. References must be in a separate reference section at the end of the paper, with items referred to by numerals in square brackets. References must be completed in IEEE style as follows:

  • Author(s), first initials followed by last name, title in quotation marks, periodical, volume, inclusive page numbers, month and year.
  • Books: Author(s), first initials followed by last name, title, location, publisher, year, chapter, page numbers.

Keywords Selection - A list of significant keywords (also named index terms) should be included in the first page of each submitted paper. Select a minimum of 2 up to a maximum of 5 (recommended) keywords during one of the submission steps at the T-RO Papercept site Keywords can be chosen from those predefined within the RAS subject areas (the ones used for ICRA conferences) or typed in freely (for at most 2 keywords). The current list of predefined T-RO keywords can be downloaded from here.

PDF File Testing - Sometimes, PDF files generated with software or operative systems of Far East countries may have a font embedding problem with Chinese/Japanese/Korean fonts. This prevents the paper to be shown on screen or printed correctly with standard Western system configurations. We cannot expect that all reviewers are equipped with software extensions to work properly with such PDF files, slowing down the review process. Therefore, authors should carefully generate their PDF files and are urged to check them before submission by using the web facility accessible at the T-RO PaperCept site The minimum version of acceptable PDF is currently 1.4.

Copyright and E-Copyright Form - It is the policy of the IEEE to own the copyright to the technical contributions it publishes on behalf of the interests of the IEEE, its authors, and their employers, and to facilitate the appropriate reuse of this material by others. To comply with U.S. copyright law, authors are required to sign an IEEE copyright transfer form with the final manuscript. For your information, this form is available here. It returns to authors and their employers full rights to reuse their material for their own purposes. Authors of papers accepted for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS should fill the electronic copyright transfer form (E-Copyright) at the time of final submission of the material for publication.

Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) Author Names - IEEE supports the publication of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) author names in the native language alongside the English versions of the names in the author list of an article. For more information, please visit the IEEE Author Digital Tool Box.

Inquiries - All pertinent correspondence relating to publications should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief. For routing inquiries, please contact the Editorial Assistant.

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