There is an increasing need in the application of mobile robotics, particularly outdoors,   in which autonomy and environmental constraints play a critical role. An example is environmental and security monitoring. In this kind of long endurance applications one key aspect is if the limited energy available to the robot is suitable to a successful mission. For instance, considering a monitoring mission using a mobile robot, with a duration that can go from months to years, it is unlikely to have an energy storage system that can accommodate the total energy required for the robot to accomplish the mission.

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