Cyborg and bionic systems (CBS) is concerned with hybrid fusion of organic and biomechatronic body parts, which integrates some artificial components or technology like bio-hybrid actuators and sensors. It aims to make an organism restored or enhanced beyond its original biological characteristics. The organism is not only thought of human beings, but also animals and any other kinds of living creatures. In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is considered as one of the CBS. Since such device measures voltage potentials in the body, performs signal processing and delivers electrical stimuli by using feedback mechanism to keep the person alive.
CBS has been widely applied in: 1) tissue engineering by providing some tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and/ or fungal cells, 2) individual rehabilitation treatment like artificial limb and direct brain implants, 3) neuro control, 4) larger networks of communication and control. With rapid development of bionic technology and nanotechnology, many researchers think that the CBS can assist human to conquer many limitations such as disease, speed, strength, as well as intelligence.
To achieve goals and applications, we need a clear understanding of the organism mechanism, biological compatible materials, information perception and fusion, control of the implants. Therefore, multi-disciplinary theory and technology have been stimulated and integrated like cell biology, recovery and regeneration medicine, bionic mechanics, robotics, nanotechnology, material science, biomechanical interface technology and so on.