IEEE Transactions on Robotics (T-RO)

The IEEE Transactions on Robotics (T-RO) publishes research papers that represent major advances in the state-of-the-art in all areas of robotics. The Transactions welcomes original papers that report on any combination of theory, design, experimental studies, analysis, algorithms, and integration and application case studies involving all aspects of robotics. You can learn more about T-RO's scope, paper length policy, open access option, and preparation of papers for submission at the  Information for Authors page.


Table of Contents of the latest T-RO issue (IEEE Xplore)
Early Access Articles
Most Downloaded Articles
Special Issues


Presenting Your Transactions on Robotics Paper at ICRA or IROS

Any IEEE Transactions on Robotics (T-RO) paper, other than communication items and survey papers, may be presented at either an upcoming IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) or an upcoming IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), provided most of the key ideas of the paper have never appeared at a conference with a published proceedings (i.e., the paper is a "new" paper and not the evolved version of a previous conference paper or papers). 

  • To be eligible for ICRA 20xx+1, your paper’s final accepted manuscript must be submitted to T-RO for proofing between January 1, 20xx and December 31, 20xx. (For ICRA 2019 only, the date criterion is also met by T-RO papers that were published online or in an issue during the period January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018.) 
  • To be eligible for IROS 20xx+1, your paper’s final accepted manuscript must be submitted to T-RO for proofing between May 1, 20xx and April 30, 20xx+1.

In summary, if your final manuscript is submitted between January 1 and April 30 of 20xx, it meets the date criteria for IROS 20xx and ICRA 20xx+1. If your final manuscript is submitted between May 1 and December 31 of 20xx, it meets the date criteria for ICRA 20xx+1 and IROS 20xx+1.

Authors may not request any acceleration or delay of the review process based on these criteria.

Authors of eligible papers will be contacted by the T-RO Editor-in-Chief’s office, typically in April/May or December/January, to determine interest in presenting at a conference.  Eligible papers may only be presented at one conference.


Historically papers in the Transactions on Robotics have been either "evolutionary" papers (papers extended, with new results, from previously presented conference papers by the same authors) or "new" papers (papers that are not evolved from conference papers).  Since the introduction of the Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L), the robotics community has demonstrated strong support for straight-to-journal papers (maximum of eight pages) with the possibility of presentation at a conference.

This new IEEE RAS policy, formalizing pilots of the policy at ICRA 2017 and 2018, provides a conference presentation option for "new" T-RO papers.  Authors are no longer forced to write two versions of the paper (a short one for conference presentation and a longer one for the "final" journal version) if they want the work both to be presented at a conference and to appear in a journal.  This saves on author and reviewer effort, eliminates the confusion over which paper to cite, and reduces the stress on authors and reviewers arising due to submission deadlines for ICRA and IROS. The new policy gives a new benefit to T-RO authors and brings high-quality T-RO papers to ICRA and IROS without harming the traditional evolutionary model.

Is My Paper "Evolved" or "New?"

This initiative distinguishes between papers that have evolved directly from conference papers ("evolved" papers) and papers that have not ("new" papers).  Of course the distinction is not always clear-cut, since almost all of one's research has evolved in some way from one's previous papers.

Below are some criteria to consider in the judgment of whether a paper is evolved or new.  If the answer to one or more of these questions is "yes," this is a good sign that your paper should be considered to be evolved.

  • Does the journal paper have the same title as the previous conference paper?
  • Is there a direct lineage from the conference paper to the journal paper?
  • Typically a paper has one or a small number of key new ideas.  (There may be many supporting details.)  Does a majority of the key ideas in the T-RO paper appear in the previous conference paper(s)?
  • Would the T-RO paper have been rejected without the content of the previous conference paper(s)?
  • Does the T-RO paper use a significant amount of text, results, data, or figures from the previous conference paper(s)?
If you are in doubt, send your brief analysis along with the T-RO paper and the relevant conference paper(s) to the Editor-in-Chief for an evaluation.  It is unethical to withhold relevant previous conference paper(s) in this analysis.


King-Sun Fu Best Transactions on Robotics Paper Award

2017: "On-Manifold Preintegration for Real-Time Visual-Inertial Odometry"
by Christian Forster, Luca Carlone, Frank Dellaert, and Davide Scaramuzza, 
vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 1-21, February 2017, [Xplore Link]

2016: "Rapidly Exploring Random Cycles: Persistent Estimation of Spatiotemporal Fields With Multiple Sensing Robots"
by Xiaodong Lan and Mac Schwager, 
vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 1230-1244, October 2016, [Xplore Link]

2015: "ORB-SLAM: A Versatile and Accurate Monocular SLAM System"
by Raul Mur-Artal, J. M. M. Montiel and Juan D. Tardos
vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1147-1163, 2015 [Xplore Link].

2014: "Catching Objects in Flight"
by Seungsu Kim, Ashwini Shukla, Aude Billard
vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1049-1065, 2014 [Xplore Link].

2013: "Robots Driven by Compliant Actuators: Optimal Control under Actuation Constraints"
by David J. Braun, Florian Petit, Felix Huber, Sami Haddadin, Patrick van der Smagt, Alin Albu-Schäffer, Sethu Vijayakumar
vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1085-1101, 2013 [Xplore Link].

2012: "Reinforcement Learning With Sequences of Motion Primitives for Robust Manipulation"
by Freek Stulp, Evangelos A. Theodorou, Stefan Schaal
vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1360-1370, 2012 [Xplore Link].

2011: " Human-Like Adaptation of Force and Impedance in Stable and Unstable Interactions"
by  Chenguang Yang, Gowrishankar Ganesh, Sami Haddadin, Sven Parusel, Alin Albu-Schaeffer, Etienne Burdet
vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 918-930, 2011 [Xplore Link].

2010: " Design and Control of Concentric-Tube Robots"
by  Pierre E. Dupont, Jesse Lock, Brandon Itkowitz, Evan Butler
vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 209-225, 2010 [Xplore Link].

2009: " Vision-Aided Inertial Navigation for Spacecraft Entry, Descent, and Landing"
by  Anastasios I. Mourikis, Nikolas Trawny, Stergios I. Roumeliotis, Andrew E. Johnson, Adnan Ansar, Larry Matthies
vol. 25, no, 2, pp. 264-280, 2009 [Xplore Link].

2008: " Smooth Vertical Surface Climbing with Directional Adhesion"
by  Sangbae Kim, Matthew Spenko, Salomon Trujillo, Barrett Heyneman, Daniel Santos, Mark R. Cutkosky
vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 65-74, 2008 [Xplore Link].

2007: " Manipulation Planning for Deformable Linear Objects"
by  Mitul Saha, Pekka Isto
vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1141-1150, 2007 [Xplore Link].

2006: " Exactly Sparse Delayed-State Filters for View-Based SLAM"
by  Ryan M. Eustice, Hanumant Singh, John J. Leonard
vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1100-1114, 2006 [Xplore Link].

2005: " Active Filtering of Physiological Motion in Robotized Surgery Using Predictive Control"
by  Romuald Ginhoux, Jacques Gangloff, Michel de Mathelin,Luc Soler, Mara M. Arenas Sanchez, Jacques Marescaux
vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 67-79, 2005 [Xplore Link].

2004: " Reactive Path Deformation for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots"
by  Florent Lamiraux, David Bonnafous, Olivier Lefebvre
vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 967-977, 2004 [Xplore Link].


Easy Links